What are the main components of an electric bike

What are the main components of an electric bike

An ebike battery is the most important component of the bicycle. It is the energy source that powers the electric bicycle and most modern batteries are almost exclusively lithium-ion. As this battery matured over the years, it has become lighter, more powerful, and more reliable. 

Batteries are linked to an advanced battery management system (BMS). Lithium-ion batteries do not develop ‘memory’ and you can expect a battery life of up to 1000 charges.

Lithium batteries require a Battery Management System which senses the voltage of each cell and cuts off the power being sent to them in order to prevent overcharging or over discharging.  

The number of cells in the battery and how they are wired together determines the voltage and capacity (amp-hours or Ah) of the final product.

The battery is often integrated into the frame of the electric bike for a neater and more compact appearance. Removing the battery is a simple process, allowing you to change or charge it as you need to.

The Motor

The electric bike motor turns the electrical energy from the battery into power that mechanically moves the bike. It can be a motor intalled on the back wheel ( hub motor ) or a mid-mounted motor. Mid-mount motors are more powerful options, and are ideal for off-road biking, especially for hill or mountain-climbing. 

Mid-mounted motors allow you to use the bike’s chain driven transmission as the motor’s gears, so the electric motor can run in its optimum RPM range. 

If you are not a ''serious'' biker and want something less power-intensive, a hub motor works best. It is better suited to commuter cycles and it is a “direct” drive, which means they drive the powered wheel directly, not through the cycle’s chain driven gears. 

Choosing between these two motors depends on how you will be using the ebike on a daily basis.

The Controller

The controller connects all of the electrical components together, and allows the rider to adjust the voltage that is sent to the motor in response to the rider’s throttle or pedal usage. By adjusting this voltage, you are able to moderate the power output of the ebike. 

The controller lowers the voltage going to the motor, while upping the current by the same ratio. Electric bicycle motor controllers will usually have a specific voltage limit as well as a current limit that defines the maximum amperage they draw from the battery.

The Throttle

An ebike throttle is arguably the most popular method of regulating the power from the motor. You can choose from a thumb throttle or a twist throttle, and these throttles control the power coming from the electric bike motor regardless of how hard you are pedalling. 

Using the electric bicycle throttle is similar to using the accelerator in your car – all you need to do is press it and your ebike will speed up and move forward. 

Throttles provide full power on demand, making it easier for starting from a traffic light, stop sign, or hill. They provide a burst of power for safely cycling through busy roads or intersections.

Note that in many countries the use of throttle is not permitted by law. In most of the modern ebikes throttle could be eliminated from the display or totally unplugged from the controller.

The Display

One of the most useful electric bike components is the display/LCD dashboard that provides information such as the battery capacity, maximum speed, average speed, single trip time, total trip time, walking power assist, trip distance, total distance covered, and the Pedal Assist System levels.

The display and controller are connected, which allows you to easily communicate with the controller and increase or decrease the speed. If you are someone who cycles competitively or wants to log your progress, you can easily see how far you have gone for each ride.

Having the battery capacity information at your fingertips will allow you to ensure your battery is fully charged and ready for every adventure.

Back to blog

Leave a comment